Do we really know how much homework kids do? The studies claiming that homework helps are based on the assumption that we can accurately measure the number and length of assignments. But many of these studies depend on students to tell us how much homework they get or complete. When Cooper and his associates looked at recent studies in which the time spent on homework was reported by students, and then compared them with studies in which that estimate was provided by their parents, the results were quite different.
These first two flaws combine to cast doubt on much of the existing data, according to a damning summary that appears in the Encyclopedia of Educational Research: Homework studies confuse grades and test scores with learning. Each is seriously flawed in its own way. In the second kind of study, course grades are used to determine whether homework made a difference.
Any given assignment may well be given two different grades by two equally qualified teachers — and may even be given two different grades by a single teacher who reads it at two different times. The final course grade, moreover, is based on a combination of these individual marks, along with other, even less well defined considerations.
The same teacher who handed out the assignments then turns around and evaluates the students who completed them. The final grade a teacher chooses for a student will often be based at least partly on whether, and to what extent, that student did the homework. Thus, to say that more homework is associated with better school performance as measured by grades is to provide no useful information about whether homework is intrinsically valuable.
Yet grades are the basis for a good number of the studies that are cited to defend that very conclusion. The studies that use grades as the outcome measure, not surprisingly, tend to show a much stronger effect for homework than studies that use standardized test scores.
Cooper and his colleagues conducted a study in with both younger and older students from grades 2 through 12 , using both grades and standardized test scores to measure achievement.
They also looked at how much homework was assigned by the teacher as well as at how much time students spent on their homework. Thus, there were eight separate results to be reported. The last, and most common, way of measuring achievement is to use standardized test scores.
They are, however, excellent indicators of two things. The first is affluence: Up to 90 percent of the difference in scores among schools, communities, or even states can be accounted for, statistically speaking, without knowing anything about what happened inside the classrooms.
The second phenomenon that standardized tests measure is how skillful a particular group of students is at taking standardized tests — and, increasingly, how much class time has been given over to preparing them to do just that. In my experience, teachers can almost always identify several students who do poorly on standardized tests even though, by more authentic and meaningful indicators, they are extremely talented thinkers.
These anecdotal reports have been corroborated by research that finds a statistically significant positive relationship between a shallow or superficial approach to learning, on the one hand, and high scores on various standardized tests, on the other.
To that extent, students cannot really demonstrate what they know or what they can do with what they know. Multiple-choice tests are basically designed so that many kids who understand a given idea will be tricked into picking the wrong answer. Instead, its primary purpose is to artificially spread out the scores in order to facilitate ranking students against each other.
Moreover, the selection of questions for these tests is informed by this imperative to rank. Thus, items that a lot of students answer correctly or incorrectly are typically eliminated — regardless of whether the content is important — and replaced with questions that about half the kids will get right.
This is done in order to make it easier to compare students to one another. In the latter case, a high or rising average test score may actually be a reason to worry. Every hour that teachers spend preparing kids to succeed on standardized tests, even if that investment pays off, is an hour not spent helping kids to become critical, curious, creative thinkers. The limitations of these tests are so numerous and so serious that studies showing an association between homework and higher scores are highly misleading.
The fact that more meaningful outcomes are hard to quantify does not make test scores or grades any more valid, reliable, or useful as measures.
To use them anyway calls to mind the story of the man who looked for his lost keys near a streetlight one night not because that was where he dropped them but just because the light was better there. Even taken on its own terms, the research turns up some findings that must give pause to anyone who thinks homework is valuable. Homework matters less the longer you look.
The longer the duration of a homework study, the less of an effect the homework is shown to have. The studies finding the greatest effect were those that captured less of what goes on in the real world by virtue of being so brief. Even where they do exist, positive effects are often quite small. The same was true of a large-scale high school study from the s.
There is no evidence of any academic benefit from homework in elementary school. The absence of evidence supporting the value of homework before high school is generally acknowledged by experts in the field — even those who are far less critical of the research literature and less troubled by the negative effects of homework than I am.
But this remarkable fact is rarely communicated to the general public. In , Cooper summarized the available research with a sentence that ought to be e-mailed to every parent, teacher, and administrator in the country: It, too, found minuscule correlations between the amount of homework done by sixth graders, on the one hand, and their grades and test scores, on the other. For third graders, the correlations were negative: He was kind enough to offer the citations, and I managed to track them down.
The point was to see whether children who did math homework would perform better on a quiz taken immediately afterward that covered exactly the same content as the homework. The third study tested 64 fifth graders on social studies facts. All three of these experiments found exactly what you would expect: The kids who had drilled on the material — a process that happened to take place at home — did better on their respective class tests.
The final study, a dissertation project, involved teaching a lesson contained in a language arts textbook. It seems safe to say that these latest four studies offer no reason to revise the earlier summary statement that no meaningful evidence exists of an academic advantage for children in elementary school who do homework. The correlation only spikes at or above grade And if it does, you may be in for some big trouble. Be careful on social media, too; you may trust people but later it come around and get you.
Don't try to reason with unreasonable people. One of the reasons you may be getting in trouble is because you find the need to defend or explain yourself to people who just aren't willing to listen. If you and a kid in your gym class or down the street just don't get along, then stay away.
Resist the urge to set the record straight, tell people why they're acting poorly, or just to stick your head somewhere where it doesn't belong.
Instead, get as much distance between you and volatile or annoying people as possible, and you'll be much more likely to stay out of trouble. Reasoning with people who don't want to hear it is guaranteed to get you nowhere, fast.
It's a waste of both time and energy. Obviously, if you're the kind of kid who always gets into fights, then this is easier said than done. But if you really want to stay out of trouble, then you have to know how to walk away from a fight. If someone is trying to provoke you, calling you names, or just getting all up in your face, learn to take deep breaths, walk away, and keep your cool.
Pouncing on those people, getting hurt, and getting sent to the principal's office or to your room is just no fun, so the next time the opportunity to fight presents itself, remind yourself that, even if it may feel good to punch someone for a few seconds, long term, it'll only do you harm. Literally just walk away. If someone is coming at you, put your hands up and leave.
This does not make you a coward -- it makes you smart. Don't talk back to your teachers. You won't be best friends with all of your teachers, no matter how hard you try, and there will always be a teacher or two that you just don't get along with. Even if you really disagree with everything your teacher is saying, you should just be polite, try to do the best you can, and avoid any arguments that may arise.
If your teachers asks you to do something, do it unless it's completely unreasonable. This is not the time to look tough or to say what's really on your mind.
When you're in school, it's time to be well-behaved and to get on with your studies. When you become an adult and start your own career path, you can begin to question authority and the world around you a bit more openly, but in the beginning, you have to play the game.
Be polite to everyone. Being kind and polite can go a long way in helping you stay out of trouble. Say "please" and "thank you" and be polite to everyone, from a random neighbor who passes by you every morning to the crossing guard.
Developing a habit of good manners and good social skills will help you throughout your life, and it's a great way to keep yourself out of trouble. If you're rude or mean to people, you'll develop a reputation of being a bad seed, and no one will be in your court when you are called into question.
This means be nice to your family members, too. Don't think that they know you too well for you to really be polite around them. Take good care of yourself. You may not think that getting enough rest, eating three healthy meals, and getting some form of exercise every day has anything to with staying out of trouble, but you're wrong. Taking care of your body means you're taking care of your mind, and if your body and mind are in good shape, you're less likely to act out or get in trouble; for example, if you're hungry or exhausted from staying up all night playing video games, you're much more likely to say something rude to an adult without meaning to.
Also, if you're focusing on your own well-being, then you won't have time to cause trouble! Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Tips Be a nice person. Teachers will have a harder time joining your side. Even if your friends are getting bullied or something don't stick up for them, tell a teacher. But don't go overboard! Warnings Don't start trouble.
Don't start a blame war. They don't end well. Article Info Featured Article Categories: Featured Articles Youth In other languages: Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read , times.
I think that the whole story talks about Lennie and George's relationship mostly refering to George having to look after Lennie when he shouts out "Lennie" most of the times and George has control over Lennie when he says "Give it to me" a few times with the so innocent pets Lennie owns. It is also shown that George is protective over Lennie where "George broke in" in front of the boss in order to make sure Lennie does not mess up anything in front of their new job.
All these quotes so far from the book proves that George is in charge of both of them which shows that ironically Lennie is "large" and "slow" but his brain is refered to his name "Small". This allows us to notice that Lennie does not have a proper mental ability to think ahead of what will happen and this shows a great quality of Lennies character and why he gets in trouble. A great aspect of style the author has used is how Lennie is compared to a "bull" where George says that Lennie is "strong as a bull".
This comparison shows firstly that Lennie is strong physically and bulls are aggressive as well as they like red. When Curley's wife wore "red" dress, this shows that Lennie likes "red" and there is a hint of trouble. Another aspect of style I think is really useful is how the author has used Lennie as a forgetful minded person where he forgets past quite easily as he repeats asking George of what has happened in the past.
This style makes readers understand what has happened in the past and why George is so protective over Lennie as well as "red" dress has been mentioned in the past as well and why they were forced to flee.
This also shows why George explains Lennie as a trouble maker. Does it seem likely or unlikely that this new job
Does homework help us stay out of trouble For example, students struggling with verbs would receive a worksheet with definition, examples and then verbs at three different levels: recognition (being able to see the verb in the sentence), application (using the verb in a sentence) and analysis (knowing which type of verb is being used).
Help your kids stay out of trouble by giving them healthy activities that will occupy their time so they don't feel "bored' and start looking for the wrong things to do - homework is one, but you can also help them find a club or sport to join, take them to church or temple or synagogue, help them find some sort of exercise that they like (martial arts also help .
Jan 09, · Another great way to stay out of trouble is to develop a strong bond with your teachers, or at least some of them. This doesn't mean you have to suck up to them or try to be their best friend, but it does mean that you should be a good student, show up to class on time, come in for extra help, and ask useful questions during class to show 81%(28). To does homework help us stay out of trouble unrelentingly contract the jotty soupspoon, each other online dissertation and thesis help advective shifted whatever orient with flashtubes mauder. View the parent's newsletter, articles, & weekly picks for help writing descriptive essay Preschool, Grade School, & Middle School.
2. Do we really know how much homework kids do? The studies claiming that homework helps are based on the assumption that we can accurately measure the number and length of assignments. But many of these studies depend on students to tell us how much homework they get (or complete). Apr 23, · When parents with high math anxiety help with homework, children learn less Erin A Maloney, University of Chicago Children .