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❶The first task of deconstruction would be to find and overturn these oppositions inside a text or a corpus of texts; but the final objective of deconstruction is not to surpass all oppositions, because it is assumed they are structurally necessary to produce sense.

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Derrida writes, "Without a doubt, Aristotle thinks of time on the basis of ousia as parousia, on the basis of the now, the point, etc. And yet an entire reading could be organized that would repeat in Aristotle's text both this limitation and its opposite".

This argument is largely based on the earlier work of Heidegger, who, in Being and Time , claimed that the theoretical attitude of pure presence is parasitical upon a more originary involvement with the world in concepts such as ready-to-hand and being-with.

In the deconstruction procedure, one of the main concerns of Derrida is to not collapse into Hegel's dialectic, where these oppositions would be reduced to contradictions in a dialectic that has the purpose of resolving it into a synthesis. This explains Derrida's concern to always distinguish his procedure from Hegel's, [17]: There have been problems defining deconstruction. Derrida claimed that all of his essays were attempts to define what deconstruction is, [26]: Derrida has been more forthcoming with negative apophatic than with positive descriptions of deconstruction.

When asked by Toshihiko Izutsu some preliminary considerations on how to translate "deconstruction" in Japanese, in order to at least prevent using a Japanese term contrary to deconstruction's actual meaning, Derrida began his response by saying that such a question amounts to "what deconstruction is not, or rather ought not to be". Derrida states that deconstruction is not an analysis, a critique, or a method [26]: In these negative descriptions of deconstruction, Derrida is seeking to "multiply the cautionary indicators and put aside all the traditional philosophical concepts".

The relevance of the tradition of negative theology to Derrida's preference for negative descriptions of deconstruction is the notion that a positive description of deconstruction would over-determine the idea of deconstruction and would close off the openness that Derrida wishes to preserve for deconstruction.

If Derrida were to positively define deconstruction—as, for example, a critique—then this would make the concept of critique immune to itself being deconstructed.

Some new philosophy beyond deconstruction would then be required in order to encompass the notion of critique. Derrida states that "Deconstruction is not a method, and cannot be transformed into one". Derrida warns against considering deconstruction as a mechanical operation, when he states that "It is true that in certain circles university or cultural, especially in the United States the technical and methodological "metaphor" that seems necessarily attached to the very word 'deconstruction' has been able to seduce or lead astray".

Derrida is careful to avoid this term [method] because it carries connotations of a procedural form of judgement. A thinker with a method has already decided how to proceed, is unable to give him or herself up to the matter of thought in hand, is a functionary of the criteria which structure his or her conceptual gestures. Thus, to talk of a method in relation to deconstruction, especially regarding its ethico-political implications, would appear to go directly against the current of Derrida's philosophical adventure.

Beardsworth here explains that it would be irresponsible to undertake a deconstruction with a complete set of rules that need only be applied as a method to the object of deconstruction, because this understanding would reduce deconstruction to a thesis of the reader that the text is then made to fit. This would be an irresponsible act of reading, because it becomes a prejudicial procedure that only finds what it sets out to find. Derrida states that deconstruction is not a critique in the Kantian sense.

For Derrida, it is not possible to escape the dogmatic baggage of the language we use in order to perform a pure critique in the Kantian sense. Language is dogmatic because it is inescapably metaphysical.

Derrida argues that language is inescapably metaphysical because it is made up of signifiers that only refer to that which transcends them—the signified. For Derrida the concept of neutrality is suspect and dogmatism is therefore involved in everything to a certain degree. Deconstruction can challenge a particular dogmatism and hence desediment dogmatism in general, but it cannot escape all dogmatism all at once.

Derrida states that deconstruction is not an analysis in the traditional sense. Derrida argues that there are no self-sufficient units of meaning in a text, because individual words or sentences in a text can only be properly understood in terms of how they fit into the larger structure of the text and language itself. Derrida states that his use of the word deconstruction first took place in a context in which " structuralism was dominant" and deconstruction's meaning is within this context.

Derrida states that deconstruction is an "antistructuralist gesture" because "[s]tructures were to be undone, decomposed, desedimented".

At the same time, deconstruction is also a "structuralist gesture" because it is concerned with the structure of texts. So, deconstruction involves "a certain attention to structures" [26]: An example of structure would be a binary opposition such as good and evil where the meaning of each element is established, at least partly, through its relationship to the other element.

It is for this reason that Derrida distances his use of the term deconstruction from post-structuralism , a term that would suggest that philosophy could simply go beyond structuralism. Derrida states that "the motif of deconstruction has been associated with 'post-structuralism ' ", but that this term was "a word unknown in France until its 'return' from the United States". Manfred Frank has even referred to Derrida's work as "Neostructuralism". The popularity of the term deconstruction, combined with the technical difficulty of Derrida's primary material on deconstruction and his reluctance to elaborate his understanding of the term, has meant that many secondary sources have attempted to give a more straightforward explanation than Derrida himself ever attempted.

Secondary definitions are therefore an interpretation of deconstruction by the person offering them rather than a summary of Derrida's actual position. Indeed, that is a good rule of thumb in deconstruction.

That is what deconstruction is all about, its very meaning and mission, if it has any. One might even say that cracking nutshells is what deconstruction is. Have we not run up against a paradox and an aporia [something contradictory] Deconstruction begins, as it were, from a refusal of the authority or determining power of every 'is', or simply from a refusal of authority in general. While such refusal may indeed count as a position, it is not the case that deconstruction holds this as a sort of 'preference' ".

There is no simple 'overcoming' of metaphysics or the language of metaphysics. A survey of the secondary literature reveals a wide range of heterogeneous arguments.

Particularly problematic are the attempts to give neat introductions to deconstruction by people trained in literary criticism who sometimes have little or no expertise in the relevant areas of philosophy that Derrida is working in. These secondary works e. Derrida's method consisted of demonstrating all the forms and varieties of the originary complexity of semiotics , and their multiple consequences in many fields.

His way of achieving this was by conducting thorough, careful, sensitive, and yet transformational readings of philosophical and literary texts, with an ear to what in those texts runs counter to their apparent systematicity structural unity or intended sense authorial genesis.

By demonstrating the aporias and ellipses of thought, Derrida hoped to show the infinitely subtle ways that this originary complexity, which by definition cannot ever be completely known, works its structuring and destructuring effects. Deconstruction denotes the pursuing of the meaning of a text to the point of exposing the supposed contradictions and internal oppositions upon which it is founded—supposedly showing that those foundations are irreducibly complex, unstable, or impossible.

It is an approach that may be deployed in philosophy, in literary analysis , and even in the analysis of scientific writings. Derrida refers to this point as an "aporia" in the text; thus, deconstructive reading is termed "aporetic. Derrida initially resisted granting to his approach the overarching name "deconstruction", on the grounds that it was a precise technical term that could not be used to characterize his work generally. Nevertheless, he eventually accepted that the term had come into common use to refer to his textual approach, and Derrida himself increasingly began to use the term in this more general way.

Derrida's lecture at Johns Hopkins University , " Structure, Sign, and Play in the Human Sciences ", often appears in collections as a manifesto against structuralism. Derrida's essay was one of the earliest to propose some theoretical limitations to structuralism, and to attempt to theorize on terms that were clearly no longer structuralist.

Structuralism viewed language as a number of signs, composed of a signified the meaning and a signifier the word itself. Derrida proposed that signs always referred to other signs, existing only in relation to each other, and there was therefore no ultimate foundation or centre. Between the late s and the early s, many thinkers were influenced by deconstruction, including Paul de Man , Geoffrey Hartman , and J. This group came to be known as the Yale school and was especially influential in literary criticism.

Miller has described deconstruction this way: Its apparently solid ground is no rock, but thin air. Arguing that law and politics cannot be separated, the founders of the "Critical Legal Studies Movement" found it necessary to criticize the absence of the recognition of this inseparability at the level of theory. To demonstrate the indeterminacy of legal doctrine, these scholars often adopt a method, such as structuralism in linguistics , or deconstruction in Continental philosophy , to make explicit the deep structure of categories and tensions at work in legal texts and talk.

The aim was to deconstruct the tensions and procedures by which they are constructed, expressed, and deployed. For example, Duncan Kennedy , in explicit reference to semiotics and deconstruction procedures, maintains that various legal doctrines are constructed around the binary pairs of opposed concepts, each of which has a claim upon intuitive and formal forms of reasoning that must be made explicit in their meaning and relative value, and criticized.

Self and other, private and public, subjective and objective, freedom and control are examples of such pairs demonstrating the influence of opposing concepts on the development of legal doctrines throughout history. Deconstructive readings of history and sources have changed the entire discipline of history.

In Deconstructing History , Alun Munslow examines history in what he argues is a postmodern age. He provides an introduction to the debates and issues of postmodernist history. He also surveys the latest research into the relationship between the past, history, and historical practice, as well as articulating his own theoretical challenges. Jean-Luc Nancy argues, in his book The Inoperative Community , for an understanding of community and society that is undeconstructable because it is prior to conceptualisation.

Nancy's work is an important development of deconstruction because it takes the challenge of deconstruction seriously and attempts to develop an understanding of political terms that is undeconstructable and therefore suitable for a philosophy after Derrida. Simon Critchley , an English philosopher, argues, in his book The Ethics of Deconstruction , [43] that Derrida's deconstruction is an intrinsically ethical practice.

Critchley argues that deconstruction involves an openness to the Other that makes it ethical in the Levinasian understanding of the term. Jacques Derrida has had a great influence on contemporary political theory and political philosophy. Derrida's thinking has inspired Slavoj Zizek , Richard Rorty , Ernesto Laclau , Judith Butler and many more contemporary theorists who have developed a deconstructive approach to politics. Because deconstruction examines the internal logic of any given text or discourse it has helped many authors to analyse the contradictions inherent in all schools of thought; and, as such, it has proved revolutionary in political analysis, particularly ideology critiques.

Richard Beardsworth, developing from Critchley's Ethics of Deconstruction , argues, in his Derrida and the Political , that deconstruction is an intrinsically political practice. He further argues that the future of deconstruction faces a perhaps undecidable choice between a theological approach and a technological approach, represented first of all by the work of Bernard Stiegler.

Most of the criticism of deconstruction were first articulated by these philosophers and repeated elsewhere. In the early s, Searle had a brief exchange with Jacques Derrida regarding speech-act theory. The exchange was characterized by a degree of mutual hostility between the philosophers, each of whom accused the other of having misunderstood his basic points.

Searle did not consider Derrida's approach to be legitimate philosophy, or even intelligible writing, and argued that he did not want to legitimize the deconstructionist point of view by paying any attention to it. Consequently, some critics [45] have considered the exchange to be a series of elaborate misunderstandings rather than a debate, while others [46] have seen either Derrida or Searle gaining the upper hand. The level of hostility can be seen from Searle's statement that "It would be a mistake to regard Derrida's discussion of Austin as a confrontation between two prominent philosophical traditions", to which Derrida replied that that sentence was "the only sentence of the 'reply' to which I can subscribe".

Austin's theory of the illocutionary act. While sympathetic to Austin's departure from a purely denotational account of language to one that includes "force", Derrida was sceptical of the framework of normativity employed by Austin. Derrida argued that Austin had missed the fact that any speech event is framed by a "structure of absence" the words that are left unsaid due to contextual constraints and by "iterability" the constraints on what can be said, imposed by what has been said in the past.

Derrida argued that the focus on intentionality in speech-act theory was misguided because intentionality is restricted to that which is already established as a possible intention.

He also took issue with the way Austin had excluded the study of fiction, non-serious, or "parasitic" speech, wondering whether this exclusion was because Austin had considered these speech genres as governed by different structures of meaning, or hadn't considered them due to a lack of interest.

In his brief reply to Derrida, "Reiterating the Differences: A Reply to Derrida", Searle argued that Derrida's critique was unwarranted because it assumed that Austin's theory attempted to give a full account of language and meaning when its aim was much narrower. Searle considered the omission of parasitic discourse forms to be justified by the narrow scope of Austin's inquiry. Some critics [50] have suggested that Searle, by being so grounded in the analytical tradition that he was unable to engage with Derrida's continental phenomenological tradition, was at fault for the unsuccessful nature of the exchange.

Derrida, in his response to Searle "a b c Searle did not reply. Later in , Derrida tried to review his position and his critiques of Austin and Searle, reiterating that he found the constant appeal to "normality" in the analytical tradition to be problematic.

In the debate, Derrida praised Austin's work, but argued that Austin is wrong to banish what Austin calls "infelicities" from the "normal" operation of language.

One "infelicity", for instance, occurs when it cannot be known whether a given speech act is "sincere" or "merely citational" and therefore possibly ironic. Derrida argues that every iteration is necessarily "citational", due to the graphematic nature of speech and writing, and that language could not work at all without the ever-present and ineradicable possibility of such alternate readings. Derrida takes Searle to task for attempting to get around this issue by grounding final authority in the speaker's inaccessible "intention".

Derrida argues that intention cannot possibly govern how an iteration signifies, once it becomes hearable or readable. All speech acts borrow from a language whose significance is determined by historical-linguistic context, and by the alternate possibilities that this context makes possible. This significance, Derrida argues, cannot be altered or governed by the whims of intention. Derrida argued against the constant appeal to "normality" in the analytical tradition of which Austin and Searle were paradigmatic examples.

In the description of the structure called "normal," "normative," "central," "ideal,"this possibility must be integrated as an essential possibility. The possibility cannot be treated as though it were a simple accident-marginal or parasitic. It cannot be, and hence ought not to be, and this passage from can to ought reflects the entire difficulty.

In the analysis of so-called normal cases, one neither can nor ought, in all theoretical rigor, to exclude the possibility of transgression.

Not even provisionally, or out of allegedly methodological considerations. It would be a poor method, since this possibility of transgression tells us immediately and indispensably about the structure of the act said to be normal as well as about the structure of law in general.

Derrida argued that it was problematic to establish the relation between "nonfiction or standard discourse" and "fiction," defined as its "parasite, "for part of the most originary essence of the latter is to allow fiction, the simulacrum, parasitism, to take place—and in so doing to "de-essentialize" itself as it were".

This question is all the more indispensable since the rules, and even the statements of the rules governing the relations of "nonfiction standard discourse" and its fictional"parasites," are not things found in nature, but laws, symbolic inventions, or conventions, institutions that, in their very normality as well as in their normativity, entail something of the fictional.

He called Derrida's conclusion "preposterous" and stated that "Derrida, as far as I can tell, does not have an argument. He simply declares that there is nothing outside of texts Further, in an essay on religion and religious language, Habermas criticized Derrida's insistence on etymology and philology [58] see Etymological fallacy.

The American philosopher Walter A. Davis , in Inwardness and Existence: Popular criticism of deconstruction intensified following the Sokal affair , which many people took as an indicator of the quality of deconstruction as a whole, despite the absence of Derrida from Sokal's follow-up book Impostures Intellectuelles.

Chip Morningstar holds a view critical of deconstruction, believing it to be epistemologically challenged.

He claims the humanities are subject to isolation and genetic drift due to their unaccountability to the world outside academia. During the Second International Conference on Cyberspace Santa Cruz, California, , he reportedly heckled deconstructionists off the stage.

We made fun of them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For deconstruction of buildings, see Deconstruction building. For the approach to post-modern architecture, see Deconstructivism. For other uses, see Deconstruction disambiguation. Retrieved 8 September A decision that did not go through the ordeal of the undecidable would not be a free decision, it would only be the programmable application or unfolding of a calculable process Archived from the original on 16 May Annual Review of Anthropology.

Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 16 September University of Toronto English Library. The New York Times. Retrieved 1 June Johns Hopkins University Press. New York Philosophical Library.

Fonda appears to be less concerned with the verdict than with whether or not the trial and jury deliberation is conducted fairly and thoroughly.

Accordingly, Fonda exhibits the forensic rhetoric precisely in his efforts to persuade the other jurors to re-examine the case with an open mind. Keating is nurturing and encouraging to the students, and clearly praises them for their efforts in studying and in simply surviving their adolescent lives.

His positive influence over the boys in effect censures the strict militaristic attitudes the headmaster and other teachers wish to hold over the students.

Accordingly, the use of the ceremonial oratory…… [Read More]. Deconstruction Architecture Has a Major. French architect, Tschumi won the international competition for the planning of the Parc de la Villette that year.

A graduate of the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, his career of dispersion or 'post-humanist' version of deconstruction has furthered the theoretical school of deconstruction architecture through attendant discursive projects outside of building construction. Since the late twentieth century, Deconstruction's historical landmarks speckle urban metropolises across the globe.

In the est, the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao Spain, designed by Frank Gehry, reveals cultural continuity of institutional deconstruction architecture.

Retrospect on deconstructionist architecture has also wrought new priorities in sustainable building. The green construction market has prompted an increase in decentralized supplier relationships with building firms, as local, recyclable sources become more popular.

Theoretical Considerations A general theory of Modernity in architecture is preface to the Deconstruction in…… [Read More]. Deconstruction Louis Bogan Refers to. Returning to the theme of freedom, the poet starts off the third stanza with a line about journeys and how women "wait" when they should embark.

The line vaguely invokes Homer's Odyssey in which faithful wife Penelope waits twenty years for her husband to return home from his journeys after the Trojan War. Women restricted to conventional social roles must be "content Women neglect themselves in their subservience to men, suggests the narrator. When "They cannot think of so many crops to a field," they overlook their own need for physical…… [Read More].

Deconstruction California Students Protest Education. Although the police must suppress the violence of some demonstrators, they are not necessarily personally opposed to the demonstration's goals. Furthermore, many of the police officers may once have been students themselves, not so long ago. The students are portrayed as acting in a way that is injurious to the campus community and to the community at large -- by disrupting classes, for example, and blocking state highways.

However, they are a part of the community the police are sworn to protect. The police actions may also be designed to protect the demonstrating students just as much as other members of the community, although the article suggests that the outside world must be protected from the students.

Democrats Republicans are portrayed as being more supportive of the reductions than Democrats, although both parties are struggling with the need to make budget cuts.

The Republican governor is said to…… [Read More]. Black Power Deconstruction of Carmichael's. Sociological Theory In sociological terms we could refer to the sociology of knowledge and the view that reality is socially constructed. This theoretical perspective explores the relativity of social knowledge and the way that knowledge is formed and structured in society. Berger and Luckmann's work entitled The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge could be applied to this speech in that it provides insight into the relative perceptions of social reality.

The work by Berger and Luckmann enabled a more speculative and open discussion of the ways in which "natural" aspects of life are seen to be in reality socially determined and constructed. More importantly this theoretical stance investigated the was that these 'realities' are shaped and formed by institutional structures and education etc.

We could apply such an analysis to the deconstruction of white hegemonic structures in society that perpetuate a biased view…… [Read More]. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby examines the concept of the American Dream, understood by the protagonist Nick Carraway as the pursuit of success and individuality. The character of Gatsby is the embodiment of the Dream, and his death is symbolic of the death of the dream itself.

Gatsby's death arose from his hollow pursuit of Daisy, and Carraway likens this to the death of the American dream as it had been corrupted into the pursuit of wealth for its sake. The conclusion mirrors the views expressed at the outset of the novel about the garishness of the newly-rich in West Egg.

The Great Gatsby reflects a view of the American Dream as told through the white male experience of the day. This framing allows Fitzgerald to focus on the finer details of wealth and success.

From the outset of the story, Nick Carraway expresses scorn for the…… [Read More]. Postmodernist Literature Discuss the Representation. Yarbrough quotes Ihab Hassan, who describes postmodernism as the "literature of silence" in that it "communicates only with itself," a reference that initially astounds the rational mind.

Then, reading further in Yarbrough, Hassan is quoted as saying the term postmodernism applies to "a world caught between fragments and wholes, terror and totalitarianism of every kind. Senator Joseph McCarthy's fascist-like search for "communist sympathizers," which created terror and loathing and reflected how morally shallow yet potent the hammer of temporary totalitarian authority can be.

On page 96, Chapter 44, it is revealed that Horlick Minton had once been fired by the State Department for allegedly being "soft on communism" - but the only "real evidence" used to justify his dismissal, his wife announced, was a letter she wrote to the…… [Read More]. Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin.

Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin Deconstructing the meaning of "death" in Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour" As a method of literary analysis, deconstruction seeks to generate layers of meanings that are both latent and manifest within a literary work. More often, it is through deconstruction that leads the reader to identify a specific theme found in a work. Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour" provides symbolic meanings that provide the readers with awareness about the state of gender equality that was yet to be fully recognized in Chopin's society during the 19th century.

In this paper, the researcher seeks to create a literary analysis using the method of deconstruction, wherein a particularly striking word found within the literary text was taken, and themes and discussion of the word's relation to the story and its characters are generated. One primary emergent theme that prevails throughout the…… [Read More]. Transpersonal Knowing Authentic Knowing Is. In the mystical experience, for example, we turn our attention away from the reality of everyday life and focus on the reality of the sacred realm.

The experience causes us to radically deconstruct our old beliefs, attitudes and positions and construct new frames of reference for how we define and describe reality. With each new frame of reference comes a new view of a "bottom line," that is, of what the ultimate reality is. Nelson argues there is no bottom line or ultimate human reality but an unending series of new views.

The sense of spiritual connectedness that ultimately comes from…… [Read More]. For this reason, six books have been considered. The paper will cover the narrative analysis of historical content related to race and empire in U. History, summary of the chronological themes, and the strengths and weaknesses for each book.

The difference lies in societal construction. Rather than having inborn worth, race is history reliant and given meaning by social processes, institutions, and persons. In the view of Gomez, the identity of Mexican-American is a result of social attitudes and legal definitions during the era, after the war between U. In fact, for Mexicans, there was no proper racial model[footnoteRef: Butoh Dance Butoh Is a. Their primary aim was to destabilize existing orders and this is what they accomplished with arts forms such as butoh.

Hijikata, the man responsible for creating Butoh, also upheld Artaudian views on life and humanity. Keeping in view the traditional Japanese thinking of a connection between nature and man, Hijikata incorporated it in butoh movements. However he focused more on nature's darker side believing that, "the dirty is beautiful and the beautiful is dirty, and [life] cycles between them forever" Kurihara , Hijikata, just like Artaud, forced the viewers to pay closer attention to the side of life that they had usually ignored.

He believed that it is due to a break between man and the darker side of life that we suffered…… [Read More]. Politics of Difference in Nursing. But the real world was a whole and perfect entity. A dualistic view of reality understands there to be two thus dualism levels of existence.

In other words, the ultimate reality is non-corporeal, or non-physical. It is the level of spirit and deity. The lower level is the physical world which in which we live. It is the opposite of ultimate reality, thus it is not real in the sense that it is not ultimate.

It contains the imperfect physical manifestations of the ideas that exist in the perfect plane, so by definition it is characterized by falsehood, ugliness, evil, injustice, imperfection. Pessoa the Philosophies Embodied in. Furthermore, what is intriguing is that all of these fictive authors created by Pessoa interact with one another and even translate each other's works.

Gibbs One critic notes that "Fernando Pessoa invented at least 72 fictive identities. The following extract emphasizes this central point and also allows for…… [Read More]. Comment About Art Piece. Art Piece Comment David Carson's design that he created for the Aspen Design Conference is a classic example of his approach to deconstruction. By using the term "deconstruction" a writer is referring to a graphic design which "…exposes and transforms the established rules of writing," according to Ellen Lupton.

The deconstructive design is actually more than just a design, it is a way in which the graphic artist uses typography as art, infusing a design with emotions that upon initial viewing, seem to be very confused. This black and white print ad for the Aspen Design Conference presents the word "Hollywood" in some capital letters and some lower case letters -- which, on the surface of it, is an anathema of good clear graphic design.

The grammatically incorrect approach in Carson's typography is part of what makes this design appealing -- or appalling, depending on the viewpoint of the observer. Thomas Kuhn's the Structure of. What they had regarded as the most certain of all theories turned out to be in need of serious revision. In reaction, they resolved never again to bestow their faith in scientific truth unconditionally.

Skepticism, not certainty, became their watchword. It was no longer superior to historical analysis but could only be understood within the context of history. This too is another post-modern concept which is very important in deconstruction theory.

They also learned more about the internal workings of the sciences than their earlier, much more abstract epistemological approach would ever have justified or even tolerated. Postmodern thought Thomas Kuhn's groundbreaking work in the field of the philosophy of science…… [Read More].

Adolf Loos Is Considered. However, his work was not always well accepted and the there was a public outcry at the minimalist and bare design of this building. Another aspect of his designs that should be mentioned was his fondness for the use of natural materials in his buildings.

For example, many European architects were particularly influenced by his style and theory. This can be seen in that…… [Read More]. We will tangentially see how these concepts are linked to modernity and post modernity. Also, we will see what the two alternatives to dealing with the demise of the Enlightenment as Ferraris and Taraboletti Segre argue.

The author will also refer to Lyotard and Habermas's stance on the issue. We will answer the question of why one can not separate the concerns of modernity and postmodernity from each other. We will see how the two discourses inform each other in terms of above subjects. The dialectic of the Enlightenment has almost always been known in terms of the values of truth, progress and liberation.

The modern…… [Read More]. Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach. Counselling Theories Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics.

On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon Sremac, Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…… [Read More]. Distortion of the American Dream.

From the text, there is a highlight of the American dream and its distortion over years. It is presented as an old dream, which is as old as the Constitution of the United States of America. According to the text, those who framed the American dream were engaged the country in a state where everyone will gain the good as from working hard. Through working hard, people will be able to make it possible to attain different levels of their fulfillments.

Nonetheless, today many things have changed with the changes in time Hemingway, With the aspects of capitalism and materialism taking root in every society, the dream has been distorted.

The possible supports for a statement that many of the people live within their required states…… [Read More]. This article will explore how one comes of age and life stages by comparing three movies and three novels. Tibetan Buddhism Qs the Great. The Kadampas monks were instrumental in spreading Tibetan Buddhism not so much for developing their own strain and teachings of Buddhism, but rather through the creation of programs for advancement towards Enlightenment and progress through Tibetan Buddhist teachings.

These monks also develops preaching techniques that proved highly effective and popular. The Gelupkas were similar to the Kadampas in many respects, but placed a greater emphasis on the doctrine of emptiness than the older school.

Though the Buddhism that the New Translators found in India was largely the same as what they had left in Tibet, there were significant differences that were observed and developed out of this return to the Indian Sanskrit scriptures.

The Sakya lineage was formed from reinterpretations of Sanskrit texts from a Tibetan Buddhist perspective, explaining both the similarities and the differences between the Sakya and the Nyingma schools. One of the unique…… [Read More].

Female Identity in Photography Construction. When we look at Starkey's works we appear to be looking at moments captured from everyday life, in particular the everyday life of women.

In fact Starkey's photographs are constructed, the people we are looking at are actors. Her images of modern banality also suggest ennui, despair, depression and listlessness, which are conveyed as central facets of the reality of life for women in society.

As one critic describes her images; "apathetic teenagers, usually girls, languish, slack-limbed and expressionless, in dimly lit cafes, nondescript interiors, and anonymous shopping malls. In these images and others like them, individuals stand apart from the world, separated from it by a screen of indifference.

It is not that they actively refuse to invest in their surroundings; they simply do…… [Read More]. The Negative Implications of the. The small sampling of sources here gathered reinforces the initial hypothesis that ill-effects will be observed in children where there is an absence of a father figure. This serves to justify a proposed expansion of this approach wherein a more thorough gathering of material is undertaken.

The methodology which appears as most suitable for this type of study is a more comprehensive literature review in which a larger diversity of issues is addressed and, simultaneously, in which greater detail is achieved in the areas upon which the discussion has already touched.

This would essentially be a qualitative review in which the discussion would utilize a selected set of criteria in order to identify the sources which might most appropriately be used. The outcome of this process should be a resolution concerning those areas where the most attention is warranted.

Thus, the review itself will touch upon such issues in terms…… [Read More]. Art Franz West Chameleon After all, in most ancient, primitive societies, art's form and function were one: Machiavelli Prince on What Grounds. In exchange, the words which drive Machiavelli's work are very much a reflection of the groundswell of discontent with the ideological hegemony of the church and the feudal system.

Thus, though we regard Machiavelli's contempt for terms of 'good' and 'not good' as inherently permissive to severe violation of the rights and experiences of others, we must also understand it as something of a reaction to such forces as well. The period to which Machiavelli helped reveal the threshold may be "summed up in that broadening of physical and mental horizons known as the Renaissance.

The 'humanist' movement in northern Europe enlarged the options for thinking people beyond the ways of thinking, teaching, and explaining the world which had evolved as common property in the Middle Ages.

Australia's Domestic and Foreign Policy. This would be demonstrated by its unwavering willingness to follow the United States even into its poorly-informed and ill-advised invasion of Iraq, providing combat troops and civilian military aid.

During the lead- up to this war, in fact, John Howard would perhaps have been noted as only second to Britain's rime Minister Tony Blair in the ranking of Iraq War cheerleaders, appearing frequently in the media in order to endorse the alleged provocations made by the U.

Howard echoed well the terms which Bush used to prompt war, remarking in a February appearance that the Australian government was firm in "backing…… [Read More]. Antonio Gaudi it should also be noted that his works draw inspiration from many disciplines and from the input of artists, engineers and sculptors. The first commission that Gaudi was awarded was for the lampposts for the Plaza Real in Barcelona. Antonio Gaudi This was followed by various commissions, which included furniture and alter pieces.

An early work was the villa El Capricio at the resort area of Comillas. Antonio Gaudi Initially, many of the works and his unique architectural style were criticized by some of his contemporaries. However, with the support of allies like Eusebi Guell and others, he achieved a national and then international status as an architect. A major part of his fame was based on his questioning of convention and his interrogation or deconstruction of classic architectural styles.

Homer Dante Homer and Dante. There it is called the underworld and truly reminds one of the subconscious in many ways. For the Greeks, this is just one aspects of life after death.. In some sense it seems more closely associated with the Christian idea of limbo.

Heaven has its counterpart in the Elysian fields. In the Inferno hell is again representing the subconscious, but in it's more visceral and active and judgmental aspect. In general the "nature" of man to be violent, deceiving, etc. Yet one has some pity for many of its inhabitants, the same as in the Odyssey. But why these visions of gods and hell by these authors? Jung points out that the introversion necessary to look within is the common factor: The visionary phenomena, produced in the first stages of introversion, are grouped among the well-known phenomena of hypnagogic vision.

They form, as…… [Read More]. Women Are Portrayed in Late. In this regard, Pyne reports that, "hen scandalized critics attacked Rodin's nudes, Camera ork defended the drawings by a strategy of veiling the body with the soul, praising them as 'the perception of the mystery of surfaces The adventure of the mind in matter The divinizing of the sensual and the materializing of the sensuous.

The portrayal of women was even regarded as a…… [Read More]. Holly Bilski English b Dr. Each period concludes an establish section of the poem, the first period ends on "Over her, thrashing and thrusting until he was spent. The following breaks each connote the ending of one thought tangent and the beginning of another. The implication on narrative voice occurs through the shifting of his speaking tone and message after periods. In his first address the narrator is informative, the second he is reflective and the third he places mockery on contemporary standards.

Thus, punctuation in this case is use to delineate what specific theme and audience he is address. The use of commas is also…… [Read More]. Media the Two Media News. Arguably, the raw data at ikiLeaks is far more powerful than anything that can be found in traditional media or satire news. The audience here must also acquire the tools necessary to properly digest the information, as an audience accustomed to uncritical digestion of mainstream media will be challenged by the raw information presented devoid of spin and context.

The news about comedy. Vol 8 4 Retrieved November 27, from http: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Satirical fake news and the politics of the fifth estate. Race and Social Class in. In fact, the Toy is considered to be one of the most racist films of all time due to these issues Sastry. Blazing Saddles and the Toy approach comedy from distinct perspectives, and although they may have common elements, the differences in their approach to humor, comedy, and race allow the audience to understand why Blazing Saddles is successful in its commentary on society and why the Toy fails miserably at changing people's perspectives about society in a positive way.

Brooks's approach to race and social status helps to redefine how blacks were viewed in cinema, and also helps to demonstrate that previous cinematic depictions have been skewed due the control exercised by Hollywood executives. On the other hand, Donner's approach to race and social status ends up being degrading, racist, and further reinforces negative stereotypes of race and social status. It is through these various depictions and approaches that…… [Read More]. This paradigmatic view recognizes that the world is constantly changing and subsequently, no one position or perspective of the world should be privileged over any other Jennings, Postmodern thinkers are bothered by the implication of modern ontology that since there is one world out there, and observation is not problematic, then there is only one reasonable interpretation of the world.

The postmodern philosopher counters that while there may in fact be only one 'true' world out there, "there are many reasonable, but distinct interpretations or understandings of that world" Moore, , pg. Postmodernism rejects the pictorial metaphor of knowledge in favor of a constructivist metaphor Lyotard, As such, postmodernism provides new, unconstrained ways to move…… [Read More].

But this is not exactly the kind of modernity that we shall be discussing in this paper. Instead we will be focusing on the new changes in the concept of modernity, which defines our current cultural views, social forces and self-identity. These changes took place somewhere in s after the demise of the Beat generation. In fact almost every change that defines the modern world, has its roots in the changes that took place during s and 80s.

These decades have had a profound impact on modern worldview thus completing reformulating and redefining various aspects of our lives. How we see ourselves in this massive Universe is typical related to the values that culture and society instill in us. With changes in basic cultural and social…… [Read More].

Collection Descriptions for Fashion. Fashion Portfolios Dreamland represents the place in the heart where the dreams and wonder of childhood live. I interpret this concept in this collection through my own childhood dreams and fantasies. Dreamland is a time when we walk through a whimsical, wonderful world. The lines between what is real and what is not are blurred. Looking at fashion through the lens of a child's eyes, I have created a collection that exhibits the influences of a time in my life when anything was possible, and nothing was impossible.

Woven into this collection are fantasy themes. Princesses, magical creatures and other fantasy elements are represented throughout. These elements showcase the beauty of the world in a way that is not conceivable in a literal world.

But by using childlike imagination, the pieces have the ability to transport the wearer and the audience into another realm, recalling innocence and spectacle. In keeping…… [Read More]. However, the novel was set in the middle of the 19th century, in about the same year that Darwin published On the Origin of the Species. Hardy may not have selected his setting arbitrarily.

The Woodlanders has often been read within the context of Darwinian influences in society and literature. However, literary critics tend to emphasize the fusion between Romantic and Darwinian depictions of nature in The Woodlanders to show how Hardy drew from Darwin to develop his characters and themes.

Irvine, for example, claims Hardy was an "evolutionary pessimist," and this is certainly apparent in The Woodlanders, which provides an overtly pessimistic view of human nature but especially of patriarchy In fact, Hardy's The Woodlanders shows that while Darwinian principles of evolution sometimes favor members of the species with no moral…… [Read More].

Social Darwinism and the Gospel. A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations " Withrow,, p. Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible.

Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.

In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…… [Read More]. Postliberal Theology and Its Relationship. As Jeffrey Stout has it, following James' "Will-to-Believe," "We need not agree on all matters of moral importance to agree on many, and where our judgments happen to coincide we need not reach them for the same reasons.

At the center of all the great religions of humankind is found a common core of divine however conceived doing, disclosing and delivering. Each faith approaches it through its own heroes, expresses it in its own language, celebrates it in its own rituals, formulates it in its own rules of behavior, and passes it on in its own communal forms. While the rhetoric of each religion may claim that its way, truth and life are for all, these absolutist professions are, in fact, "love talk," the metaphors of commitment, not the metaphysics of reality.

Jesus is,…… [Read More]. International Trade Walmart International Trade. The Uruguay round would designate that the TO, through its primary role as a mediator, negotiator, and monitor of international trade policies and disputes, serves by design as a gatekeeper of international trade, offering the structural conditions and assembled authority to exact a legitimate level of authority over its member nations.

A good example of how the TO has strengthened the international governing community's ability to provide oversights for its member nations comes from the rounds of negotiation in Uruguay which essentially defined and forged the TO from the shadows of the GATT.

In a consideration, for instance, of the newly afforded power to engage in the process of dispute settlement, we can see that the TO would have an expansive impact on the power of those who had already acted under the propositions of the GATT. The declaration produced by this round of talks would proceed by stating…… [Read More]. Sociology Racism Throughout History Racism. Both what make up a race and how one recognizes a racial difference is culturally determined.

Whether two individuals consider themselves as of the same or of different races depends not on the degree of similarity of their genetic make up but on whether history, tradition, and personal training and experiences have brought them to think of themselves as belonging to the same group or to different groups Spickard, Fong and Ewalt, Prejudices, stereotypes, insults, pejorative labels and other things are usually articulated in racist communications.

Explicit racism helps to legitimize individual and collective action that creates and sustains inequality and oppression between social groups. The history of mankind provides thousands of examples of racist violence: This kind of racism is explicit and visible.

Unfortunately, racism can also be invisible. Harts Postscript Dworkin's Early Work. Both of these perspectives are, from Hart's perspective, too extreme: Hart was trying to keep a difficult middle position Hacker, page He argued that a legal theory should be constructed around the perspective of someone who accepted the legal system, but the theory itself or, to put the matter differently, the theorist herself need not, and should not, endorse the system as one which is generally just or which creates binding moral obligations.

In other words, the theory simultaneously: Sustainability Is Development That Meets. They want to maintain that livelihood.

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M. H. Abrams wrote a particularly devastating essay on deconstruction, and Steven E. Cole and Archibald A. Hill have criticized the methods of de Man and Geoffrey Hartman, respectively. Other scholars have found deconstruction a stimulating and innovative new approach to literary criticism.

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Familiarize yourself with theory jargon. This is about more than sounding knowledgeable in an essay; it allows you to better communicate your ideas to the informed reader. Understand terms such as what it means to be “post-modern,” “intertextuality” and “construction.” However, be sure you use these words correctly.

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Deconstruction in Architecture Essay Words | 6 Pages. Deconstruction in Architecture Deconstruction is first developed by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. The definition for deconstruction is not easy to understand, and Derrida and his interpreters actually intend it to be difficult. Powerful Essays words | ( pages) | Preview Deconstruction and the Concept of Creation - One of the first things that has always caught my attention with the concepts of Deconstruction has to do with the representation of reality and truth through language.

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Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now! Deconstruction Essay  Name Professor Course Date Deconstruction Applied Deconstruction entails a deep conceptualization of the text that focuses on the relationship between common binary oppositions, for instance, presence/absent, male/female, good/evil, beginning/end, masculine/ feminine and speech/ writing.