Thus, the current system is based on a few guiding principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still describes how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves.
This gives writers a flexible method that is near-universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field. When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements.
In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:. Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elements , and information about the source is kept to the basics.
End this element with a period. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks. Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to "containers," which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.
Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books , or watched a television series on Netflix.
It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.
Accessed 27 May In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation. In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc. A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc.
Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.
Current Conditions and Future Directions. The International Online-Only Journal, vol. Accessed 20 May List the source's author, with the last name first, followed by a comma and the first name. Then include the work's title in italics, the location and name of its publisher, the year of publication and the medium of publication -- print or Web, for example. Separate publisher location and name with a colon, and publisher name and year with a comma.
All other items should be followed with a period. For instance, a book citation would appear as follows:. To cite an article from a larger work, such as a newspaper, magazine or academic journal, include the article name in quotes, followed by the larger work's name in italics.
Place a period at the end of the article name, inside the quotes. Place a comma after the larger work's title, include the date of the article, a colon and the page number or numbers on which the article appears:.
To list a source which has more than one author, separate additional authors from the first with commas. Authors past the first are listed first name followed by last name, as follows:. Yorn, Paul, and Gleeson, Mark. To cite an article on a website, include the name of the company that runs the website after the publication title. Leave a space after the author name and then list the title of the article and enclose it in quotation marks. Leave a space after the title and list the name of the online newspaper in italics.
After the name of the online newspaper, add a colon and list the publisher name in italics, if known. For example, type and italicize: Add a date of publication using this format: For example, "25 Jan. List the date you accessed the newspaper article in the same format of day, month and year. For example, "7 Nov.
This MLA in-text citation includes King’s name in the sentence itself, and this specific line of text was taken from page 11 of the journal it was found in. An MLA parenthetical citation is created when the author’s name is NOT in the sentence.
NEWSPAPER. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles.
In-text Citation: Works Cited: Print newspaper article (printed on consecutive pages) (Kissinger C2) Kissinger, Henry. "The China Challenge." Wall Street Journal, May , late ed., pp. C1-C2. Location: Virginia Avenue, Fort Pierce, , FL. Note: If an article is only one page long, you do not need to provide the page number in the in-text citation. Note: If there is no author listed, the in-text citation would include the first word or words of the title of the article in quotation marks, e.g. ("Talks").
In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the works cited list at the end of the paper. In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. Example of an MLA 8 citation for a print newspaper article: Tumola, Cristabelle. “NYC Developers Seek to Justify High Prices with New Amenities.” Metro [New York City], 9 Aug. , p. 4. How to Cite a Newspaper Article from an Online Database in MLA 8: Many newspapers are published in print, but also found on databases.